I recently helped a friend of mine install Arch Linux and it’s motivated me to write about Arch. This is not a tutorial or promotional blog for Arch. These are my ramblings on Arch, my experiences with Arch and my recommendations for using Arch.
Brief Personal History
I found Arch Linux sometime early in 2009 when I grew bored of how Windows XP looked and wanted an easier way to make my system look more ‘l33t.’ Windows Vista was not encouraging and Windows 7 was not yet released. I practiced installing inside a Virtualbox machine and eventually, managed to setup successful installation. Unfortunately, I didn’t have the courage to install on bare metal thinking I might cause hardware damage if I do something wrong. With the Windows 7 release around the corner, my interest in Linux dropped until 2011 where I had that itch to try something new again. I’ve been an active user since.
Installing Arch Linux
The biggest hurdle to almost everyone who wants to try Arch Linux for the first time is the installation. In mid 2012, they announced that they removed their installer, named AIF (Arch Installation Framework), and in its place, several small scripts are provided for convenience. At their defence, The original installer software didn’t provide much functionality except to show a very minimal GUI with a list of steps to finish the installation.
For those more experienced, this change allows faster installs, and those new are at the mercy of the wiki. They also adopted a monthly release cycle for their install medias. Because Arch is a rolling release, it makes no sense for the liveCD’s to have tools that are heavily outdated.
The current Arch Linux installation really only has 3 major steps: - Setup your disk and partitions Install base packages Setup the bootloader
I don’t plan on writing up an installation guide (the Arch Wiki pages on installation are fairly extensive, although be wary of the beginner’s guide – I’ve seen some questionable recommendations), but I have a few remarks on some potential quirks that some people may run into.
UEFI: It is the new cool thing that replaces BIOS and is now shipped with all modern computers. It requires different steps than the traditional installs with BIOS. To check whether your machine uses UEFI or BIOS, go into your BIOS settings on boot and it should be indicated somewhere under Boot Options. If you have a pretty GUI, its UEFI. Usually computers that support UEFI also supports legacy boot so for some, they have the option to stick with the old. The noticeable difference during setup is that UEFI requires a specific boot partition. If you plan on dual booting, different system’s have different levels of support:
- Windows 7/8 32-bit: UEFI is not supported.
- Windows 7/8 64-bit: In order to use UEFI, your disk must use GPT which is a successor to the MBR
- OS X: It already uses UEFI* and GPT. It doesn’t support MBR at all.
- Linux: Any combination of MBR/GPT and BIOS/UEFI is supported.
If you do plan on dual booting, try to install Linux second. OS X and Windows are pretty strict about their paritions and will auto-create the EFI parition. Then you can either choose to share the EFI parition or create a separate one for each system. I personally like to share the parition, but to each to their own. I also recommend gummiboot. It’s a very simple-to-setup UEFI boot manager.
* Apple uses their own EFI implementation which may or may not be compliant with the UEFI standards.
Network Access: Without any network access, you cannot install Arch Linux. Why? There are no packages on the media for you to install. Going back to the install media, it doesn’t make much sense to ‘store’ packages in a rolling release distro. You’ll have an update to just about every package you have installed. Every once in a while, updates require manual intervention. These updates tend to break systems who’s system is very out-of-date. Check out the infamous filesystem update. This makes it very difficult to install on systems that can’t connect out-of-the-box (i.e Macbooks whose wifi drivers do not have official support). Easiest way to setup on those systems would be to find a prebuilt package (or build it yourself in another Arch system) to install the wifi drivers through a flash drive. Some people have had success tethering their phones as well.
Dedicated Graphics Cards: These bad boys don’t get much love from anybody. The open source drivers perform underwhelmingly because neither AMD nor Nvidia provide sufficient support. The open source drivers exist solely because open source community was able to reverse engineer the GPU’s. There are binary blobs available for both AMD and Nvidia, but their support is about a generation behind, their performance is inferior to Windows and it can be a pain to setup properly. Valve appears to be working with Nvidia and Intel to ready their release of SteamOS and Steam boxes so expect better support/performance (hopefully). I recommend skipping the dedicated cards, especially on laptops. The open source graphics drivers for Intel perform extremely well but the switchable graphics systems blow on Linux. If you must have the power, Nvidia is the only officially supported platform on Arch. Official AMD(ATI) support was dropped several years ago.
Once the installation is complete, you have the bare Linux setup and it’s up to the user to configure their settings to their desire. I believe this is one of the biggest reasons why Arch has been consistently in the top 10 most used Linux distributions. The only software that is required by Arch is the Arch package manager, pacman. Some could argue that systemd has been forced upon users, but it has heavy support from Red Hat. Also, Debian (and Ubuntu) have announced that they are transitioning to systemd so yay systemd! For the anti-fans, there are so many alternatives gaining support from the Arch community.
In the end, the installation process is just a bunch of commands you run. I’ve been writing a bare minimum installer for my personal use. It’s meant to setup my current system from scratch.
Using Arch Linux
These are a few tips on maintaining a healthy Arch installation.
Avoid Yaourt: Do everyone a favor and choose a different AUR helper. Usually what happens is the new Arch users follow tutorials which tell them to install yaourt to install packages from the AUR. They blindly use this tool which completely removes the need to understand how the Arch packaging system works. Then they ask for help and then get derailed for not RTFM. I suggest cower. There are many wrappers also for cower available for those who want more automation.
Keep Your System Up-to-date: Try to update your system at least once a week. I update my system daily and it has caused me no problems. The Arch developers work on up-to-date systems and make sure that their packages work with other up-to-date packages. It’s probably ideal to follow the developers.
Never pacman -Sy (package): This cherry-picks an up-to-date package with your out-of-date system. It’s an incredibly easy way to break your install.
Never Auto-Update Packages: This is another taboo in Arch. Some packages have useful outputs when they update and they require some user intervention. You also want to know what you’re updating. If something randomly breaks, you’ll have a much harder time finding the cause. Don’t have a background job running pacman -Syu all the time. If you want to know if you have any out-of-date packages, pacman comes with a simple script called checkupdates which safely checks for out-of-date packages.
Arch Tools: A tool I use often is pkgfile. It’s an incredibly useful tool that lets you know which package offers which file. Say a package was missing a dependency and it had some error stating a library was missing. Running pkgfile on that library will tell you what package to download only if it is in one of your pacman servers you have listed in /etc/pacman.conf. Arch also has ABS which is very similar to FreeBSD Ports. It’s useful if you need to build an official package with different flags. For example, I rebuild vim updates because the python interpreter for Vim is disabled on the official package and it’s required by the YouCompleteMe Vim plugin.
Reading PKGBUILDS: When installing a new package from the AUR, it is good practice to look at the PKGBUILD’s before you install the package. Anyone can upload anything in the AUR. It’s your responsibility to check the integrity of the package.
Have a LiveCD available: This is common practice for any Linux distribution, but it’s vital you have one for Arch. You may have an update that somehow broke your system and you can’t boot anymore. You can’t fix that without a LiveCD available.
The Kernel Issues: Arch uses the newest stable release of Linux which may have some regressions. I had a pretty severe power regression a while back on my laptop which took several kernel iterations until it was finally fixed. Sometimes it may be more convenient to tell pacman to ignore the kernel updates if some problems arise in the newer ones.
Window Managers: This is personal opinion, but I believe it is easier to maintain your system without a desktop environment (Gnome, KDE). Because DE’s are essentially software suites, there are many points of failure. When something doesn’t work the way you think it should, it’s more difficult to decided where to first look. Standalone window managers on the other hand do exactly as they’re labeled; they manage windows. Everything else is configured by the user, which also fits into the DIY mentally like the rest of Arch.
Obligatory screenshot to end the blog: